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(See: Communication from Asuman Aytekin Inceoglu, Bilgi University, to Rosalyn Park (May 17, 2010) (on file with The Advocates for Human Rights)) A definition of “honour”-based violence should reflect three basic elements: 1) control, or desire to exert control, over a woman’s behaviour; 2) a male’s feeling of shame over his loss of control, or perceived loss of control, over her behavior, and; 3) community or familial involvement in augmenting and addressing this shame.(See: Family Killing Fields: Honor Rationales in the Murder of Women Baker et al. Laws should describe “honour” crimes and killings as violence stemming from a perceived desire to safeguard family “honour”, which in turn is embodied in female behavior that challenges men’s control women, including control exerted through sexual, familial and social roles and expectations assigned to women by traditional ideology.By labeling the murder “karo kari,” the perpetrator expects to be forgiven by the victim’s relatives.In Balochistan, the same custom is known as “sivah kari,” or just “black woman.” The practice of “karo kari” has expanded in recent years across Pakistan, growing beyond its original origins as a Baloch and Pashtun tribal custom, something the law appears to acknowledge by using the term “or similar other customs or practices.” In the Northwest Frontier Province (NWFP) it is called “tor tora;” in Punjab “kala kali.” “Karo kari” is generally acknowledged as the shorthand term for premeditated “honour” killings in Pakistan.Defining “honour” crimes by reference to these very specific customs could exclude other types of acts or behaviour that do not explicitly fall within that definition from prosecution.(See Amnesty International, Pakistan: Violence Against Women in the Name of Honour (1999); Expert Paper prepared by Shahnaz Bokhari, Good Practices in Legislation to Address Harmful Practices Against Women in Pakistan, United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women, May 2009.)Example: A failure to clearly differentiate between crimes of “honour” and crimes of passion can cause potential problems in the application and enforcement of the law.For example, in United Nations Resolution 55/68, the General Assembly expressed concern over violence against women, including “crimes committed in the name of honour” and “crimes committed in the name of passion” (¶ 1).(For more information on legislation addressing sexual violence against women and forced marriage, see: Sections on Sexual Assault and Forced and Child Marriage.) Drafters should use the phrase “so-called honour” or use quotation marks around “honour” to imply the absence of “honour” in these crimes.

Background Afghanistan's recent history is characterized by war and civil unrest.

Nevertheless, drafters are urged to use the term “honour” when describing these crimes against women and girls.

Using the term “honour,” as opposed to a more ambiguous or restrictive term such as “custom” or “tradition,” will properly identify “honour” crimes as such and prevent loopholes that allow perpetrators to escape accountability.

) CASE STUDY: Pakistan’s Criminal Code (2005), Section 299(ii) defines “honour” crime as an “’offence committed in the name or on the pretext of honour’ means an offence committed in the name or on the pretext of karo kari sivah kari or similar other customs or practices.” “Karo kari” and “sivah kari” are the same custom called by different names in different parts of the country.

“Karo kari” means literally “black man black woman,” and in Sindh, the term encompasses the practice of labeling a woman as “kari” and killing her for alleged violations of “honour”; sometimes the “karo” or “black man” is also killed.

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Furthermore, the term “custom” fails to acknowledge the prevalent discrimination against women that motivates killing in the name of “honour.” (See Leylâ Pervizat, Tackling Honour in the Aftermath with a Good Practice, May 11, 2009, U. Nevertheless, the term “custom” fails to acknowledge the prevalent discrimination against women that motivates killings in the name of “honour,” and is ambiguous.